Anarchism, the theory that economic (and other) affairs are best conducted by man without control, regulation or any other form of intervention by Government. ('Anarchy is normally used to describe the state of chaos resulting from the absence of law and order enforced by Government.)
Anarchists share the socialist view that individual freedom is endangered by monopoly and concentrations of private power; the socialist would replace private power by state power, the anarchist would overthrow all power. In this sense he is nearer the liberal who would confine government to activities that individuals could not organize more efficiently or at all through competitive markets.
The anarchist movement originated with the French Encyclopaedists and was developed by Pierre Proudhon (1809-65), who denounced property as theft and argued that order could be maim tallied by individual self-control. Milhail Bakunin (1814-76) is regarded as the leading teacher of anarchism. Others were Prince Kropotkin and Count Leo Tolstoy.
Annuity, a series of equal annual payments during one or more lives or for a stated number of years in return for an immediate cash payment. The purchase price of an annuity depends on the rate of interest used to calculate the present value of a stream of income in the future. It also varies with the sex and age of the annuitant(s) and is based on actuarial Life Tables prepared from mortality rates which show the expectation of life at various ages. Less favourable rates are quoted for women because they live longer. Most pension schemes arranged through assurance companies are based on annuities payable at retirement. Such annuities are provided for by the accumulated pension contributions of the employee and (in many cases) of the employer, augmented by the interest they earn.
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